history of education in south africa timeline

Under Apartheid South Africa, there were eight education departments that followed different curricula and offered different standards of learning quality. School life spans 13 years or grades, from grade 0, otherwise known as grade R or “reception year”, through to grade 12 or “matric” – the year of matriculation. By Tim Lambert. This is entirely wrong and the Government recognizes it. 1806 to 1900 These twin forces, which open up routes of opportunity for the missionaries, come to impose British modernity everywhere in the country. It was profoundly oppressive. I have since expanded on this timeline greatly, and continue to add to this work that will be published in book form. The 19th century is an era of revolutionary change in South Africa. 1900 Natal's African student numbers rise to 10 618. The great alternative schools of the People’s Education period come into being, as does the African National Congress school in exile, the Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College, named after the youth activist hanged by the Pretoria regime in 1979. As these developments take place inside and outside South Africa, the ANC attempts to establish new and alternative approaches to schooling in an attempt to guide the youth revolt. Children learn to read and write, but critically, and this is the second purpose that critics have argued is behind the establishment of Bantu Education, only for the purposes of employment. The establishment of a proper system of education begins with the period of British rule at the Cape. HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRICA Timeline. Nothing of their past was given recognition in the school. South Africa's standing in the international community was rising, at a time when the Third World's struggle against colonialism had still not taken center stage. Black schools had inferior facilities, teachers, and textbooks. The establishment of the first school in the country’s history is deeply significant for two reasons. What does this mean? The number of schools for blacks increased during the 1960s, but their curriculum was designed to prepare children for menial jobs. Public timelines; Search; Sign in; Sign up; Milestones in African American Education Timeline created by Shasha He. Share | Discover in a free daily email today's famous history and birthdays Enjoy the Famous Daily. The government initially refused to fund schools adopting this program, but Jan C. Smuts, the Transvaal leader who later became prime minister, was strongly committed to reconciliation between Afrikaners and English speakers; he favoured local control over many aspects of education. Important about this period is that it marks the institutionalization of education in the country and its formal deployment in the cause of building a white identity. The National Party ruled Africa during that time and made the laws. 1652: Dutch settlement Dutch East India Co. establishes settlement at Cape Town and soon after issues land grants for the interior. The slave trade is abolished in Britain in 1807 and slavery is formally abolished in all colonies of the British empire, including the colony at the Cape,  in 1833. History of African Education under Colonialism. These conflicts are expressed on several levels and persist in the missionary movement itself, in its target community, the African and slave people, and between the missionaries and the latter, into the climactic era of full modernity in the middle of the 20th century. The relevance of our early education history is that it speaks clearly to the relatively well-known themes of our present, domination and resistance. The curriculum will inevitably stress certain themes over others, and give voice to some perspectives but not others. 1974 to 1983 It is believed that this was aimed at dividing black people in South Africa by emphasizing the differences between language groups. This school was founded by Commander Jan van Riebeeck for the slave children brought to the Cape in the Dutch ship, the Amersfoort, which had captured them off a Portuguese slaver. 1994 to 1997 African children attended mission schools, for the most part, and were taught by clergy or by lay teachers, sometimes with government assistance. Soweto 1976 marks the beginning of the process of rejection by young people of this apartheid education. C. 1,700 BC The kingdom of Kush arises south of Egypt An allied experience during this period that should not be neglected is the relationship between South Africa and the British protectorates of Basutoland, Swaziland and Bechuanaland and the historically mandated territory of South West Africa. It is this urgency out of our past that is the creative legacy with which we move into our future. Significant steps continue to be taken by the rapidly growing missionary movement to provide education for both black and white children. The signature development of the later years of this period is, of course, the beginning of the great youth revolt. It also set about reforming the educational system by first removing all racially offensive and outdated content and then introducing continuous assessment into schools. 1948 to 1974 It means that we insist that we only get what is the very best that this country can deliver for us: good classrooms, good laboratories and good libraries; good teachers who teach to the best of their abilities and who are self-conscious of their strengths and shortcomings and can act on these; and students who value the privilege of learning and recognise their own responsibilities as learners. As the process of Anglicisation happens, it happens with some ambiguity. After the Civil War, and with the legal end of slavery, African Americans in the South make alliances with white Republicans to push for many political changes, including for the first time rewriting state constitutions to guarantee free public education. These schools provided schooling of the same quality that white children received in state schools. By 1877 some 60 percent of white school-age children in Natal were enrolled in school, as were 49 percent in the Cape Colony. The National Party (NP) was able to capitalise on the fear of racial integration in the schools to build its support. The NP government also reintroduced Christian National Education as the guiding philosophy of education. Timeline Description: Apartheid was a time in South Africa between 1948 and 1994 when the government made laws to discriminate against black people. The South African Schools Act, 1996 was promulgated to "provide for a uniform system for the organisation, governance and funding of schools". Opponents of the Land Act formed the South African National N… mpu1. Parts of South Africa's history are interwoven with international events and trends. In 1959, the Extension of University Education Act prohibited established universities from accepting most black students, although the government did create universities for black, coloured, and Indian students. They taught themselves to read in communities like Genadendal or, as they did in the heart of the Colonial town of Cape Town, they kept themselves religiously intact by starting madrassas, Islamic schools, where they taught each other to read and write. 1997 to 2005 It formally brings to an end missionary control of the education of black people and institutes a system of mass education. 1000 - For thousands of years hunter-gatherers called the San people inhabit South Africa. This law was enforced only weakly and not at all in areas where schools were unavailable. South African involvement in Angola ended formally after the signing of a United Nations-brokered agreement known as the New York Accords between the governments of Angola, Cuba and South Africa, resulting in the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Angola and also South Africa's withdrawal from South West Africa (now Namibia), which the UN regarded as illegally occupied since 1966. This country had an unpleasant history of discrimination and inequality for over three centuries. The purpose of the Bantu Education Act is two-fold. Each of the ten homelands had its own education department. Language soon became a sensitive issue in education. After their arrival, these parents placed a high priority on education. Formal education is interrupted everywhere and the nature of the contemporary South African school, with all its marks of strength, youth vitality, and weaknesses, poor teaching and learning cultures, is established. Beyond these minima, however, we ought to seize the moment, like those in the early days of our history. Authority in South Africa has been as of yet quite controversial, and before we can understand the authority roles of the government we need to understand their roles in the history of South Africa. 1990 to 1993 For Asians and coloured children, education was compulsory between the ages of seven and fifteen. As teachers we need to be always trying new ways of being better at what we do. Religious seminaries accepted a few African applicants as early as 1841. While school attendance is not compulsory, it is introduced everywhere. For South African learners and educators, this is a new approach. As the slave children are enrolled, so they are forced to take new identities. Secondary-school pass rates for black pupils in the nationwide, standardised high-school graduation exams were less than one-half the pass rate for whites. Key to understanding this period is the National Party winning the white election in 1948 and the process of instituting formal apartheid. In terms of the Interim Constitution, the Mandela government restructured these departments as well as tertiary education departments, splitting responsibilities between nine newly formed provincial education departments and a single national education department. Since then it has been copied and pasted by various Web sites - some without acknowledgement of the original source. This story begins with the arrival of the London Missionary Society in 1799 and takes shape in the work of people like Dr Phillip and the subsequent establishment of important institutions such as Lovedale College. They did so by ‘voting with their feet’ – they escaped from the school into the mountains surrounding the Cape. Minister of Basic Education, Angie Motshekga, has announced the reappointment of the History Ministerial Task Team (MTT) to overhaul the current history curriculum. Students who tried to attend school and their teachers were attacked, and school staff found it increasingly difficult to maintain normal school activities. As we confront the intense difficulties at our schools and come face-to-face with our teaching and learning challenges -  the decline in reading, writing, comprehension and computing - it is the example of acting in our own interests that we need to recover. The first is that contrary to much of the historical narrative, even that which is sympathetic to the cause of the oppressed and which gives no or little voice to the marginalised, the slaves and the Khoisan exercised agency. 250 - The Bantu people begin to migrate into South Africa from the north. There are … C. 5,000 BC Farming begins in Egypt. Imiqhayi School, Mount Coke, King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. In May 1945, Prime Minister Smuts represented South Africa in San Francisco at the drafting of the United Nations Charter. For this to happen, it is essential that the different fragments of post-co… These only stabilised in 1858. From the beginning of 1991, white schools were required to select one of four "Models": A, B, C, or D. "Model C" was a semi-private structure, with decreased funding from the state, and greatly increased autonomy for schools. In future, our education will aim at making an African remain an African and taking interest in his own country. Out of this experience, notably, comes the first formal writing in Afrikaans. Although most white schools opted for the status quo, by 1993, due to government policy, 96% of white public schools became "Model C" schools. Emerging clearly out of this development, of course, are the abiding themes of conflict. And as learners, we need to keep asking the question, what else is there to know and how do we get it? Although CNE advanced principles of racial inferiority, it promoted teaching of cultural diversity and enforced mother-tongue instruction in the first years of primary school. Through literature study, the past of education prior to the 1994 democratic elections was revealed. The attendant systems of education that emerge during this period take their shape and character from the rapid experience of industrialization and the cultural conquest of the local people. Although South Africa's education system is definitely structured differently than it was prior to the end of apartheid, unfortunately, access to high-quality education for all citizens regardless of race has yet to be fully realized. But, like their descendents who refused  to accept anything less than the best education that can be provided, they rejected this degraded education. The National Policy for General Affairs Act (No. After the Boer War (ended 1902) in the former Afrikaner republics, however, enrolments remained low--only 12 percent in the Orange Free State and 8 percent in the Transvaal--primarily the result of Afrikaner resistance to British education. © 2004-2021 K12academics.com — All Rights Reserved. The South African economy took a significant hit in 1986 when the United States and Great Britain imposed sanctions on the country because of its practice of apartheid. The period is marked by the emergence of colonialism proper. The South African government implemented an education system called Christian National Education (CNE). Alongside of this process of formalisation, another key experience takes root. Battles and smallpox push back the indigenous populations of the San (hunter-gatherers) and the Khoikhoi (farmers). Moving into the democratic era, the most recent period of South African education history is focussed on the legacy inherited by the post-apartheid state and the choices facing the state in terms of policy development and South Africa’s relationship with its neighbours. But it is the less well-known theme of acting in our own interests, seen in the Genadendal and madressah examples from early Cape history, which we need to highlight today. British mission schools proliferated after 1799, when the first members of the London Missionary Society arrived in the Cape Colony. But during the last decades of that century, all four provinces virtually abolished African enrolment in government schools. The opening moment of education in South Africa coincides with the foundation of the colonial experience at the Cape in 1652. Since 2009, all schools teach English as a subject from grade 1 and all subjects are taught in English from grade 4. South Africa is currently transforming its education system as the last traces of the apartheid (history) curriculum are being phased out and a new (history) curriculum is introduced. The significance of this school in presenting the themes of domination and resistance, is vital for understanding South African education. Education - Education - South Africa: From the time of the first white settlements in South Africa, the Protestant emphasis on home Bible reading ensured that basic literacy would be achieved in the family. Six years after the Dutch East India Company established its colony at the Cape, the first formal school is begun in 1658. The Christian College was founded at Potchefstroom in 1869 and was later incorporated into the University of South Africa and renamed Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education. A TIMELINE OF THE HISTORY OF AFRICA. 500 - The San people of South Africa begin to form larger tribes and herd livestock. Firstly, this school had many of the characteristics that have come to frame the South African experience. This paper focuses on the process of higher education policy development in post-election South Africa during the period 1994-1998. Amersfoort Legacy - History of education in South Africa, History of slavery and early colonisation in South Africa, Amersfoort Legacy: A history through pictures. In this decree, physical science and practical subjects would be taught in English, mathematics and social science subjects would be taught in Afrikaans, and music and cultural subjects would be taught in the learner's native language. It means, minimally, that we hold everybody to account, from political authorities to teachers, students and administrators in our schools (ourselves included!). Before 1953, many black people attended schools set up by religions organisations. Out of the series of wars emerges the single political entity of South Africa. Religious seminaries accepted a few African applicants as early as 1841. This latter conflict comes to a head with the South African War of 1899-1902. The Minister said that the reason for this decree was to ensure that black people can communicate effectively with English and Afrikaans speaking white people. The white education system was restructured, in anticipation of democracy, by the apartheid government. By 2006 it was clear that OBE as a social experiment had failed, and it was quietly shelved. The kind of education that is introduced is deliberately inferior. Although the form of "Model C" was abolished by the post-apartheid government, the term is still commonly used to describe former whites-only government schools, as of 2013. c. 100,000 BC. These scholars held the view that an indigenous person was a savage pagan with no history or culture to transmit. Whites were required to attend school between the ages of seven and sixteen. Make educational timelines or create a timeline for your company website. The Department of Education and Training was responsible for black education outside the homelands. Well, it's easy as toast! In addition, from 2008, examinations at grade 12 level did not accommodate papers that distinguished between South African history and "general" history. Following the Bantu Education Act (No. In the course of the apartheid government’s rule, new nations-in-the making are established such as the Ciskei and the Transkei, ostensibly self-ruled and independent, but in reality, reservoirs for the production of cheap labour. In 1997 the government launched its new education system called Curriculum 2005, which would be based on "outcomes based education" (OBE). Education was compulsory for all racial groups, but at different ages, and the law was enforced differently. Humans migrate from Africa to other parts of the world. The country experiences the mineral revolution which sets in motion the great wars on the military front, on the cultural front and the identity front. The government also financed teacher training classes for Africans as part of its pacification campaign throughout the nineteenth century. In History. Black children were required to attend school from age seven until the equivalent of seventh grade or the age of sixteen. It takes place, moreover, under the auspices of the homeland system, central to which is the construction of apartheid’s ethnic identities. Whether or not education is used to promote or hinder peace depends largely on the school curriculum. This included nationwide departments for coloured people, for Indians and for black people, a department for independent schools, and provincial departments for white people in each of the former four provinces. Six years after the Dutch East India Company established its colony at the Cape, the first formal school is begun in 1658. PDF | On Jan 1, 2009, Driekie Hay and others published South African Education Before and After 1994 | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Some of the Bantustans that were incorporated back into South Africa in 1994 also had their own education departments. YOUR FAMILY HISTORY; SOUTH AFRICAN TIMELINE 1488 - 1999; SOUTH AFRICAN TIMELINE 1488 - 1999 I originally compiled this timeline in 1999. Together these experiences shake up the country fundamentally. The great apparatuses of power were introduced, such as the formal parliaments, the institutions of the military, the hospital services, and alongside these, the institution of the Anglican Church. Before 2009, schools serving non-English speakers had to teach English as a subject only from grade 3 and all subjects were taught in English from grade 4 (except in Afrikaans language schools). One might refer to this period as a period of state-building on the part of the white establishment. SA extreme swimmer Ryan Stramrood up for award – … Meanwhile, constitutional provision was made for education in the Transvaal Republic in 1858 and properly so in 1863 in the Orange Free State. Provincial autonomy in education was strengthened in the early twentieth century, and all four provincial governments used government funds primarily to educate whites. Yet, at the same time, during this period there is evidence of black and white children being educated in common classrooms. Critically, and somewhat unexpectedly, while this experience is underway, less attention is paid to the schooling of the local people than their administrative incorporation into the state. This is in defiance of the Dutch East India Company or without their knowledge. C. 2,000 BC Bantu speaking people begin to migrate southwards. Even if the curriculum cannot be completely comprehensive, it can be constructed in a way that minimizes privileging one group’s historical narrative over others, thereby making it less susceptible to being used for divisive ends. Period: Jan 1, 1619 to Dec 30, 1862. 1974- South Africa expelled from the UN because of apartheid. 47) of 1953 the government tightened its control over religious high schools by eliminating almost all financial aid, forcing many churches to sell their schools to the government or close them entirely. South Africa has 11 official languages and the first year of schooling is provided in all these home languages. This incorporation is, however, important for the needs of the growing economy. The controversial 1913 Land Act, passed three years after South Africa gained its independence, marked the beginning of territorial segregation by forcing black Africans to live in reserves and making it illegal for them to work as sharecroppers. This period was marked by a systematic attempt on the part of the British to anglicise Cape society. The earliest European schools in South Africa were established in the Cape Colony in the late seventeenth century by Dutch Reformed Church elders committed to biblical instruction, which was necessary for church confirmation. History of Education in South Africa 1806 to 1900 The earliest European schools in South Africa were established in the Cape Colony in the late seventeenth century by Dutch Reformed Church elders committed to biblical instruction, which was necessary for church confirmation. 1904 Key to understanding this period are the frontier wars and the discovery, during the 1860 to 1880 period, of gold and diamonds, and then finally, the conflict between the British and the descendents of the Dutch, the Afrikaners. We need to think deeply about how our leaders can be engaged creatively to confront the complexities of our schools. In 1852 the independent state of Transvaal and in 1854 the Orange Free State … South African Timeline: 1652 - 1999. A timeline of the History of education in South Africa Apartheid and Post Apartheid from 1900 - 1994. Throughout this time, most religious schools in the eastern Cape accepted Xhosa children who applied for admission; in Natal many other Nguni-speaking groups sent their children to mission schools after the mid-nineteenth century. While this early school was extremely oppressive, we have, in this first 150 years of Dutch occupation of the Cape, a number of deeply important developments – classic vignettes – which speak powerfully to our understanding of South African history. Higher education was generally reserved for those who could travel to Europe, but in 1829 the government established the multiracial South African College, which later became the University of Cape Town. In Natal, after annexation in 1843, attempts were made to develop an education structure. African Americans mobilize to bring public education to the South for the first time. Teacher-pupil ratios in primary schools averaged 1:18 in white schools, 1:24 in Asian schools, 1:27 in coloured schools, and 1:39 in black schools. This school was founded by Commander Jan van Riebeeck for the slave children brought to the Cape in the Dutch ship, the Amersfoort, which had … By the late nineteenth century, three types of schools were receiving government assistance--ward schools, or small rural schools generally employing one teacher; district schools, providing primary-level education to several towns in an area; and a few secondary schools in larger cities. Schools played an important part in this experience. Tensions over language in education erupted into violence on 16 June 1976, when students took to the streets in Soweto and eventually in other towns and cities in the country. Chronology of key events in the Orange Free state … history of African education Colonialism... 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